The training course “European Practices for a Fair and Sustainable Social Security System. Governance, Long term Strategies and Financial Management” was held from 16th to 30th October, 2016, in Italy (Rome and Florence). The course was attended by 15 officials from the Social Security department of the Chinese Ministry of Finance (3 from the central government and 12 from 12 provincial offices). The delegation was led by Mrs. Zu Guoying, Deputy Director-General of the Social Security department. This training - a relevant activity of the 2016 program of the C2 EU-China Social Protection Reform Project - was jointly organized by the Italian Institute of Social Protection (INPS), acting both as Project Leader and Component coordinator; the Italian National School of Public Administration (SNA), a Consortium partner of the project; SISPI, Secretariat of the Component; and the Component Two team of the Beijing project office. The first part of the training was devoted to a background analysis of different European social protection systems; the following to a presentation of INPS, its role and organization, with a focus on the Italian social protection system. The analysis of the impact of the demographic transition on the population of EU countries led to a discussion on the sustainability of the EU social protection systems and of the analogies with the Chinese situation. The problem of sustainability introduced: i) the presentation of the tools used by INPS and by the Ministry of Economy and Finance - in particular by the State General Accounting Department of the Ministry (RGS) - to forecast, monitor and evaluate the impact of alternative welfare policies; ii) the issue of contribution collection and the special challenges created by the increasing presence of atypical employment. The following training sessions dealt with the financial management of complementary pension funds, long term care, and means testing. Overall, during the training, around 30 specialists from Italy and other European Countries delivered presentations. Each training session also included time for discussion. The field visits allowed the participants to discuss and compare with their colleagues of Italian institutions work procedures, tools and technology so to increase specific skills. The delegation had the possibility to visit: INPS headquarters and Data Center in Rome as well as the Florence provincial headquarter; the Institute for the development of workers’ vocational training (ISFOL); the Ministry of Economy and Finance; the Bank of Italy, and the Pension Funds Security Commission (COVIP).